CyberPower Systems

PowerPedia Glossary


From definitions for CyberPower phrases to explanations of terms common to the power industry, our PowerPedia glossary will help you hone your understanding of relevant technical matters. This A-to-Z guide is one of the many online resources that CyberPower offers.

Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

AC Utility Power

The power supplied by a standard wall outlet. Alternating Current (AC) is the common form of electricity.


Active PFC Compatibility

A feature of UPS systems that delivers sine wave output to prevent unexpected shutdowns or component stress for connected devices with Active PFC power supplies.


Alarm Silence Button

Silences an audible alarm during extended outages.


Alternating Current (AC)

The direction of an electric charge that is flowing in a circuit which is constantly being reversed between positive and negative. In the U.S., the direction of AC reverses 60 times per second.


Amp (Ampere)

The standard unit of measure for electrical current. Defined as the amount of electrical flow equal to one coulomb per second.


Apparent Power

The product of the applied voltage and current in an AC circuit. Apparent power is measured in VA (volt-ampere).


Audible Alarms

Identify conditions which may affect operation, such as overloads and low battery.


Automatic Event Notifications

Provide immediate updates about power events via email, SMS text, or SNMP traps.


Automatic Shutdown

Protects connected electronics with the integrated circuit breaker which automatically switches off in the event of an overload that exceeds a model’s ability to suppress the signal. For RMCARDS, automatic shutdown protects servers and workstations from data loss due to power failure.


Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR)

Provides clean, consistent AC power by automatically regulating low voltages and over voltages, within defined tolerances, when incoming utility power has minor fluctuations.

Basic Power Distribution Units (PDUs)

Distribute unfiltered AC power from a UPS system, generator, and/or utility source to multiple connected devices.


Battery Backup

Supplies power long enough for equipment to properly shut down when utility power fails. Helps prevent loss of data and minimizes the component stress caused by a hard shutdown.


Battery Emergency Functionality

Activates emergency battery capacity.


Blackout

A power failure in which line voltage drops to zero.


Boost

The AVR function of a UPS which increases voltage when the utility power approaches the high voltage threshold.


Brownout

A drop in voltage for an extended period of time.


Buck

The AVR function of a UPS which reduces voltage when the utility power approaches the low voltage threshold.


Buck/Boost

Full automatic voltage regulation in a UPS stabilizes low voltage (boost) and high voltage (buck) to maintain nominal 120V power without resorting to battery power when minor power fluctuations occur.

Capacity

The current battery charge, expressed as a percentage of a full charge.


Cisco Compatible

Means that a product meets the standards set by Cisco, a global leader in IT.


Coaxial Cables

Cables that are made of an inner conductor surrounded by an insulator and a shield. Generally used for TV antennas, satellite dishes, cable modems, and certain computer networking applications.


Cold Start Functionality

Restores emergency power to the load after the installation of a new battery.


Communication Interface

Alarm Telemetry to an optical network terminal or a connected device. Contact closure alarm with NC normal state.


Configurable Mounting Brackets

Allow for installation of a PDU in the following configurations: 0U (vertical, under counter, and wall mount), 1U (horizontal, vertical, under counter, and wall mount), and 2U (horizontal and wall mount).


Connected Equipment Guarantee

CyberPower will repair or replace properly connected equipment, under certain terms and conditions, if it is damaged by a power surge.


Converter Mode

Provides the flexibility to set the output frequency, regardless of the input frequency, to match connected equipment by selecting 50Hz or 60Hz output on the LCD control panel.


Cord Management System

Keeps cords neatly organized. Such a system may include brackets and/or trays.


Cord Retention Brackets

Secure power cords, keeping them organized and accessible. Help cords stay plugged in.


Cord Retention Tray

Secures power cords, keeping them organized and accessible. Helps cords stay plugged in.


Current

The flow of electric charge measured in amps.


CyberPower Management Console

A hardware interface built into Monitored and Switched PDUs. Its functionality includes the ability to switch PDU outlets on and off, reboot connected equipment locally or remotely, schedule power cycling of attached equipment, and perform other tasks, such as load monitoring and event logging.

Data Line Protection

Prevents power surges that travel through telephone, coaxial, and/or Ethernet lines from causing damage to electronics.


DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) automatically assigns an IP address to a device on a network.


Digital Display

Provides easy-to-read information about amperage, voltage, kilowatts, IP addresses, and other PDU information.


Direct Current (DC)

The unidirectional flow of an electric charge.


Double-Conversion Topology

Provides consistent, clean, and nearly perfect power, regardless of the condition of incoming power. Systems with this technology operate on isolated DC power 100 percent of the time and have a zero transfer time because they never need to switch to battery. Double-Conversion UPS systems are designed for high-end system components, corporate servers, lab equipment, and other sensitive electronic devices.


Durable Metal Housing

Protects internal components and resists damage from impact or abrasions within challenging industrial environments. Also extends the life of the product.

ECO Mode

Is an energy-efficient, user selectable feature for some surge-protected outlets. When the computer is off or is in sleep mode, the UPS automatically cuts power to computer peripherals connected to any outlets in ECO mode.


Efficiency / Energy Conversion Efficiency

The ratio between the amount of apparent power and the amount of true power used by an electrical device. The closer the true power value is to the apparent power, the more efficient the device.


Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Commonly referred to as line noise, these interference signals can disrupt or degrade the performance of a circuit by inserting abnormalities into the system. Also referred to as radio frequency interference (RFI) when in high or radio frequency.


Emergency Cold Start

Allows starting of the battery backup unit with AC Mains still failed, but with a fresh or replacement battery installed.


Emergency Power Off (EPO)

Allows the UPS to be shut off in the event of an emergency if the EPO port is connected to an EPO switch.


EMI Performance Improvement

Enhanced EMI performance and increased margin from limits.


EMI/RFI Noise Filter

Maintains clean power for connected equipment by filtering out electromagnetic and radio frequency interference to improve picture and sound quality.


ENERGY STAR

ENERGY STAR® is the trusted, government-backed symbol for energy-efficient products and practices that help save money and protect the environment.


Energy-Saving Outlets

Automatically shut off power to attached devices, saving energy, when the master outlet is triggered.


Enhanced ESD Immunity

Improved electrostatic discharge (ESD) immunity.


Extendable LCD Control Panel

Displays UPS statuses and customizable operating settings from up to ten feet away (with optional cable). The extendable LCD control panel can be configured in English, Spanish, or French for ease of use.


Extended Battery Modules (EBMs)

Use Fast Charge Technology to quickly restore full backup power to a UPS system. They also extend runtime.

Fast Charge Technology

Allows UPS batteries to return to full capacity more rapidly by using a built-in charger inside of each EBM.


Folding Wall Tap Plug

Flips out for the unit to plug into a wall outlet without a power cord. Folds for easy storage.


Frequency

The number of AC power cycles in a given time period and measured in Hertz.

Gadget

A lightweight HTML and script-based application which presents users with information or functionality obtained from other applications.


Gadget Gallery

Stores all Microsoft Gadgets. The user can add or uninstall gadgets in this gallery.


Generator Compatible

Provides stable sine wave output (free of harmonics and distortion) without switching to battery mode when running on generator input power.


GreenPower UPS™ Bypass Design

Is a patented design that allows utility power to bypass the UPS transformer, when AC power is stable, which reduces energy consumption, noise, and heat buildup.


GreenPower UPS™ ECO Mode

Improves UPS efficiency; saves on electrical and cooling costs.


GreenPower UPS™ High-Efficiency Design

Reduces power consumption by utilizing a compact charger and power inverter to create an ultra-efficient backup power system for home and office use.


Ground

An electrical system connection that serves as a conduit between the circuit and earth.

Half-Load

The midpoint in the maximum load capacity for a UPS.


Hardwired

High amperage devices that require installation by a qualified electrician to be directly wired-in instead of simply being plugged in to an outlet.


Harmonic Distortion

Regularly appearing distortion of the sine wave whose frequency is a multiple of the fundamental frequency. Converts the normal sine wave into a complex waveform.


Harmonics

A sinusoidal component of an AV voltage that is multiple of the fundamental waveform frequency. Certain harmonic patterns may cause equipment problems.


Hertz (Hz)

The unit for frequency, defined as the number of alternating cycles per second.


Hibernation

A state in which a computer will save data to the hard disk and turn off the monitor and hard disk. When the computer wakes from hibernation, all open files and running programs are restored from the hard disk.


Horizontal or Vertical Mounting

Allows a PDU to be installed horizontally or vertically for rack/tower versatility with other equipment.


Hot-Swappable Batteries

Eliminate power-related downtime and ensure maximum power availability. All potential UPS maintenance, including complete power module exchange, can be performed without powering down connected equipment.

Impact-Resistant Casing

Ensures maximum durability and prolongs the life of the unit.


Indoor Design

Provides durable casing to protect an FTTx/Telecom unit. Features vary by model.


Industrial-Grade Metal Housing

Prolongs unit life with rugged casing made of impact-resistant material for maximum durability.


Input Voltage Range

The voltage range when a UPS operates within normal mode and does not require battery power.

Joule

A measure of electrical energy. One joule is defined as the energy needed to pass one ampere of current through one ohm of resistance.

Keyhole Slots

Enable the unit to be mounted on a wall, under a desk, and in other configurations to optimize space and keep power cords out of the way.


Kilovolt Ampere (kVA)

One thousand volt-amperes. Common measurement of equipment capacity. An approximation of available power in an AC system that does not take power factor into account.

Leak-Proof Casing

Protects the sealed lead-acid batteries and prolongs battery life.


LED Indicators

Light to signal a model’s operational status. Indicators vary by product line and model.


Limited Lifetime Warranty

Covers defects in materials and workmanship in the product under normal use and conditions. See warranty for details.


Line Interactive Topology

Exists when a line interactive UPS has an autotransformer that regulates low voltages (e.g., brownouts) and over voltages (e.g., spikes) without having to switch to battery.


Load

The amount of power consumed by an electrical device on a circuit. Load capacity is a critical factor in selecting a UPS or surge protector.


Local and Remote Outlet Control

Switches PDU outlets on/off and can be used to reboot connected equipment locally or remotely.


Long Input Power Cord

Reaches distant power sources, allowing a PDU to be placed where needed.


Lost Communication / Loss of Communication

A condition that occurs when a serial or USB cable is not connected securely.

Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) Technology

Allows normal current to pass through the device, while diverting any surges/spikes through the ground circuit, to safeguard connected electronics and the surge protector.


Metered Power Distribution Units (PDUs)

Network-grade power distribution plus load meters (amps) to safely optimize load levels and prevent overloads.


Monitored Power Distribution Units (PDUs)

Network-grade power distribution with remote monitoring through an SNMP network interface and local management via a digital meter display to prevent downtime due to overloads or other power events.


Multifunction LCD Panel

Displays immediate, detailed information about the UPS battery and power conditions, alerting users to potential problems before they can affect critical equipment and cause downtime.

Network-Grade Plugs and Outlets

Are highly durable and enhance the efficient distribution of power to servers, equipment, and connected devices in performance-demanding IT/industrial environments.


Nominal Voltage

The standard voltage for a circuit or system. Common nominal voltages in the U.S. include 120VAC, 208VAC and 240VAC.

ONT

Optical Network Terminal (ONT). Telephone equipment that terminates its optical fibers at a customer’s premises.


ONT Reset Functionality

Allows the end-user to manually reset the optical network terminal (ONT) without breaking any physical electrical connections.


Outdoor Design

Provides durable, weather-proof casing to protect an FTTx unit. Features outdoor mounting for access to the power supply and batteries.


Over Voltage

Occurs when incoming voltage is higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as a surge or a spike. (Also known as over-voltage and overvoltage.)


OVP/OCP Reset Functionality

Provides automatic over-voltage protection (OVP) and over-current protection (OCP) for the battery backup unit and optical network terminal (ONT).

Plug-and-Play DC Connectors

Allow for daisy-chaining additional EBMs to a UPS system.


Power Accessories

Computer and consumer electronics such as cables, hubs, USB chargers, mobile batteries, and power inverters.


Power Distribution

Delivers AC power to servers, equipment, and connected devices via a power distribution unit (PDU).


Power Distribution Unit (PDU)

Delivers UPS, generator, or utility AC power to servers, network/telecom equipment, and connected devices.


Power Factor (PF)

The ratio of real power (watts) to apparent power (VA), expressed as a number between 0 and 1. Watts divided by VA = Power Factor.


Power Factor Correction

Controls the incoming power to a power supply in order to bring the power factor as close to unity power as possible.


Power Failure (Power Lost)

An AC utility power interruption (such as a blackout).


Power Management Features

Include network-grade plugs and outlets, an AC power cord, and a cord retention tray to enhance safety, efficiency, and performance.


Power Surge

A sustained over voltage that generally subsides after a few seconds.


PowerPanel® Business Edition Software

Provides IT professionals with tools for monitoring and managing the UPS and backup power. This software offers remote management functionality. Free software download available. See the Resources tab of the online product page.


PowerPanel® Personal Edition Software

Monitors and controls a UPS with a simple dashboard interface. Free software download available. See the Resources tab of the online product page.


Sine Wave Output

Provides power protection to ENERGY STAR® 6.0 systems with Active PFC power supplies.

Rack/Tower Versatility

Allows a model to be installed horizontally (rack) or vertically (tower).


Rackbar™ Surge Protectors

Are industrial-strength rackmount surge protectors (15-amp; 20-amp) designed for the most demanding applications. They safeguard systems and networking equipment against destructive power events that can damage equipment and cause the loss of valuable data. Rackbars may be installed vertically or horizontally.


Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

See Electromagnetic Interference.


Real Power

The amount of power being drawn by a system, measured in watts. Real power is a function of apparent power (volt-amps) and the power factor.


Remote and Local Monitoring

Enables offsite and onsite tracking of PDU vitals; provides outlet control for individual and networked clients.


Remote Management

Provides unsurpassed control and protection of the UPS, connected equipment, and network devices.


Remote Management (RMCARDS)

Allows administrators to control and configure the UPS, without being onsite, via a standard web browser or network management system (NMS).


Removable LCD Panel

Displays UPS statuses and customizable operating settings from up to ten feet away (with optional cable).


Resettable Circuit Breaker

Interrupts an electric current in a circuit when the current becomes too high.


Reusable Packaging

Provides for conveniently delivering expired batteries to a recycling center. After installing the new cartridge, place the old one in the reusable packaging.


RJ11, RJ14, RJ45

Types of a registered jack (RJ). RJ11 is for standard phone lines. RJ14 is for multiple phone lines, and RJ45 is for Ethernet.


Rotatable Multifunction LCD Screen

Displays immediate, detailed information on the UPS battery and power conditions, alerting users to potential problems before they can affect critical equipment and cause downtime. The rotatable screen is easily readable whether the UPS is rack mounted or standing as a tower.


Runtime

The length of time that a UPS will support a given load while running on battery during a power outage. The maximum period of time that battery power is output from a UPS to its connected devices during a power interruption. Runtime is dependent upon the total load of all connected equipment.

Sag

A sudden, brief power undervoltage.


Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries

Supply high surge currents, provide robust power-to-weight ratios, and are cost-effective.


Selectable Output Voltages

Offer options for configuring certain high-capacity CyberPower UPS models.


Simulated Sine Wave Output

Uses pulse wave modulation to generate a stepped, approximated sine wave to supply cost-effective battery backup power for equipment that does not require sine wave output.


Sine Wave

A smooth, repetitive oscillation of AC power.


Single Phase Power

Refers to the distribution of alternating current electric power using a system in which all the voltages of the supply vary in unison.


Sleep Mode

The mode in which a computer’s monitor and hard disk turn off to save energy. In sleep mode, all unsaved data and files will be lost if a power problem occurs.


Smart Battery Management

Uses a three-cycle charging mode that improves battery life and reduces generated heat.


Smart Battery Module

Improves and extends the functional life of a UPS battery and reduces excessive heat during work cycles by using a three-cycle charging process.


SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard for email transmission on the Internet.


SNMP Network Interface

Is a standardized protocol for monitoring and managing networked devices.


Spike

A spike is a sudden, brief over voltage.


Standby Mode

The mode in which a computer’s monitor and hard disk turn off to save energy. In standby mode, all unsaved data and files will be lost if a power problem occurs.


Standby Topology

Ensures that when incoming power drops below or surges above safe voltage levels, the UPS switches to DC battery power and then inverts to AC power to run connected equipment.


Step-Down Transformer

Supports 120V and selectable 200-240V output.


Surge Protection

Diverts excess voltage away from sensitive electronic equipment during an AC power surge or power spike to prevent damage.


Switch-Free Design

Prevents accidental power shutdowns and disconnections.


Switchable Outlets

Provide local and remote control for individual and multiple outlets. Local control: turn on/turn off outlets and disable unused outlets. Remote control: restart outlets and devices, turn on/turn off, schedule power on/off sequencing, and disable unused outlets.


Switched Power Distribution Units (PDUs)

Intelligent, network-grade power distribution and the ability to control outlets individually or collectively to solve power issues, such as shutdowns, and to plan scheduled rebooting. A digital meter displays information on load and voltage, as well as offering local control of outlets. An SNMP connection enables remote monitoring and control of the outlets to ensure complete control, regardless of location.

TAA Compliancy

Occurs when a product meets the requirements of the U.S. trade Agreements Act (TAA) and is listed on the GSA Schedule Contract for approved use in government installations.


Tamper-Proof Power Button

Minimizes the chance the UPS can be accidently turned off.


Telemetry Interface

Provides alarm conditions to the optical network terminal.


Temperature Compensated Charging

Thermally compensated battery charging voltage corresponding to the ambient temperature of the battery. Based on 2.27vpc with -3mV/◦C/cell charge compensation.


Thermal Dissipation

The process of dissipating heat from an electrical system via air or liquid cooling. Also, a term for the amount of heat a device can emit.


Three-Cycle Battery Charging

Reduces heat and improve UPS battery life up to five years with the Smart Battery Management (SBM) charging system.


Three-Year Limited Warranty

Covers defects in materials and workmanship in the product under normal use and conditions within three years of the purchase date. See warranty for details.


Three-Year Warranty (UPS)

CyberPower will repair or replace a defective UPS system (including batteries) within three years of the purchase date. See warranty for details.


Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

A calculated measure of the distortion in sine wave clarity caused by higher wave frequencies.


Transfer Time

The time it takes UPS to switch from AC power to battery power.


Transformer

A device that converts AC line voltage to a higher or lower value.


Transformer-Spaced Outlets

Accommodate large transformer-based plugs without compromising the access of other outlets.


Twist Lock Plug

Secures an outlet by twisting and locking into place to prevent accidental disconnection.

U

The standard unit of measure for rack-mounted equipment. Equal to 1.75 inches in height per U. A device measuring 1U is 1.75 inches high. A device measuring 2U is 3.50 inches high.


UL Standards

Are set by Underwriters Laboratories (UL). CyberPower UPS systems are certified according to UL standards and meet strict testing requirements.


Ultra Quiet Design

Minimizes noise during operation for a quieter work environment.


Under Voltage

Occurs when voltage is lower than normal for an extended period of time without recovering, but not so low that the electronic device will not function. Two types of undervoltages are brownouts and sags. (Also known as under-voltage and undervoltage.)


Upgradeable Firmware

Downloadable improvements (firmware updates) to programs that run the PDU. For RMCARDS, upgradable firmware provides instructions for up-to-date system management.


USB & Serial Connectivity

Enables full integration with built-in power management and auto shutdown features on Windows, Linux, and VMware systems through a HID-compliant USB port and Serial port.


USB (HID Compliant)

Universal Serial Bus devices are used to connect various components to a computer. A HID (Human Interface Device) compliant USB follows a specific protocol for communication that allows it to be used with virtually any system.


USB Connectivity

Enables full integration with built-in power management and auto shutdown features of Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.


USB Port

Provides connectivity for data transfer between computers and devices. Charges personal electronics, including Smartphones, MP3 players, digital cameras, and other devices.


User-Installable Cartridge

Allows for quick and convenient installation; each cartridge is pre-assembled.

Versatile Rackmount Options

Enable a unit to be installed vertically or horizontally.


Virtualization

The creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as an operating system, a server, a storage device, or network resource. Operating systems virtualization is the use of software to allow a piece of hardware to run multiple operating system images at the same time.


Volt Amps (VA)

The unit used to express apparent power.


Volt/Voltage (V)

The difference in electric potential between two points when one amp of current dissipates one watt of power.


Voltage Regulator

A device or component that normalizes voltage to a certain standard when it is fluctuating.


Voltage Sensitivity

Allows users to select a model's sensitivity mode according to the power quality and the equipment.

Wall Tap Plug

Enables the unit to plug into a wall outlet without a power cord. Styles and features vary for wall tap plugs.


Watts (W)

A watt is a unit of measure for true power consumption. One watt is one ampere of electrical current flowing at one volt.


Waveform

A graphical representation of a signal in the form of a wave that displays how alternating current (AC) varies over time. Common waveform representations include sine wave, square wave, and trapezoidal wave. An electronic instrument called an oscilloscope is used to measure a waveform on a display screen.


Windows Sidebar

Contains Microsoft Gadgets which display information or control external applications. Only available on Windows Vista.


Wiring-Fault

Refers to an abnormal flow of current that is due to an improperly grounded electrical outlet.

Zombie

A completely unresponsive person.

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CyberPower Systems values your privacy and your information will never be rented or sold. Information provided will be used for CyberPower's internal use only. View our Privacy Policy.

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CyberPower Systems values your privacy and your information will never be rented or sold. Information provided will be used for CyberPower's internal use only. View our Privacy Policy.

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